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The Campbell Timeline

The Campbell history is intertwined closely with that of Scotland itself. Here are some of the key dates:

Campbell TimelineScottish History

1260

Scots defeated Vikings attempting to invade

1260

Earliest known Campbell – Gilleasbaig of Menstrie, father of Cailean Mor

1280

Cailean Mor (Great Colin) knighted and established at Loch Awe

1295

Treaty between King John Balliol of Scotland and King Philippe IV of France promised mutual help against English and start of ‘Auld Alliance’

1296

Cailean Mor killed in a skirmish with the MacDougall’s at the String of Lorne

1305

William Wallace defeated after battle of Stirling Bridge. Executed.

1306

King Robert the Bruce crowned

1308

Bruce defeats MacDougall’s in Pass of Brander. Dunstaffnage Castle taken and placed under a Campbell constable

1314

King Robert the Bruce fought English in Wars of Scottish Independence

1314

Battle of Bannockburn – Campbells fought with Bruce and defeated Edward II
Family rewarded with marriage between Mary (Robert the Bruce’s sister) and Sir Niall Campbell. Their son, John Campbell, was created Earl of Atholl and was killed 1333 at the Battle of Halidon Hill

1328

Treaty of Edinburgh recognising Scotland’s Independence and ending 30 years of Wars of Independence

1412

University of St Andrew’s founded

1445

1st Lord Campbell created

1450

First Inveraray Castle built

1457

Colin Campbell created 1st Earl of Argyll

1494

2nd Earl given title of Master of the Royal Household in Scotland. Title still held by the Duke today

1513

Battle of Flodden Field. King James IV killed

1513

2nd Earl killed fighting the English along with many of his clan

1542

Mary Queen of Scots born

1543

Mary Queen of Scots crowned at Stirling Castle

1547

Battle of Pinkie Cleugh. Battle sparked by English demands that Mary Queen of Scots should marry Edward VI of England. Scotland defeated.

1557

John Knox starts the Reformation in Scotland

1558

Mary Queen of Scots marries the French Dauphin

1559

John Knox appointed first Protestant minister in Scotland

1566

Mary Queen of Scots (widowed and now married to Darnley) gives birth to future King James VI

1567

King James VI crowned (aged 13 months) in Holyrood. Earl of Mar is regent

1568

Battle of Langside – Archibald Campbell, 5th Earl commanded forces who fought for Mary Queen of Scots

1603

King James VI is crowned King of Great Britain and Ireland in Westminster Abbey

1605

Guy Fawkes is arrested

1606

Union Flag adopted as flag for England, Scotland and Wales

1606

Earl of Argyll has Royal Grant of Kintyre

1625

King James VI dies

1626

Charles I crowned in Westminster Abbey

1639

King Charles I withdraws from Scotland and new Independent Scottish Parliament formed

1642

King Charles I initiates Civil War with Parliament (Roundheads) vs. Royalists( Cavaliers)

1644

8th Earl/Marquess of Argyll leads the Covenanters opposed to Charles I. Inveraray invaded by Royalists under Montrose and surrounding area is devastated.Young Irish Harpist murdered in State Bed of the MacArthurs of Loch Awe, now in the MacArthur room. One of the many ghosts which allegedly haunt the castle today.

1645

Argyll’s pursuing army is destroyed by Montrose at the Battle of Inverlochy. Argyll escapes

1649

Charles I executed

1649

Charles II proclaimed King in Scotland (not England)

1651

Charles II crowned King of Scotland in Scone (last coronation on Scottish Soil)

1651

Argyll places crown on King’s head

1661

King Charles II crowned in Westminster Abbey

1661

Argyll expects reward but is instead executed

1685

King James VII/II crowned

1685

9th Earl leads abortive rebellion in Scotland, along with Monmouth’s rebellion in England. Attempt fails. Argyll captured and executed

1688

King James deposed Glorious Revolution

1688

10th Earl raises Regiment for the Crown, The Earl of Argyle’s Regiment of Foot

1689

William and Mary become joint Sovereigns of United Kingdom

1692

Massacre of Glencoe

1695

Bank of Scotland founded by Act of Scottish Parliament

1698

Darien expedition to Panama. Ultimately crippled the Scottish economy and triggered the dissolution of the Scottish Parliament.

1701

10th Earl granted Dukedom of Argyll

1702

Queen Anne Crowned

1707

Act of Union of English and Scottish Parliaments

1715

2nd Duke of Argyll in command of Government forces defeats Jacobite army at Battle of Sherrifmuir ending rebellion.

1717

George I crowned

1719

2nd Duke of Argyll granted Dukedom of Greenwich (title lapsed as no male heirs)

1719

John Vanbrugh asked to design plans for a new residence in Inveraray to befit the Dukedom

1725

Black Watch Regiment formed

1727

Royal Bank of Scotland formed
King George II crowned

1734

Rob Roy McGregor dies

1741

Robert Adam designs Charlotte Square, Edinburgh

1743

3rd Duke of Argyll inherits Dukedom. Another distinguished soldier, he leaves the army for politics and subsequently becomes Lord Justice General of Scotland. Plans to develop the garden and surrounding policies implemented. Over the next 40 years the ‘Watch Tower’ at the top of the hill, the Doocot, Frew’s Bridge amongst others constructed. Sections of the River Aray canalised and cascades set in place to enhance the sound of flowing water.

1745

Charles Edward Stuart lands on Eriskay, the start of the Jacobite Uprising

1746

Battle of Culloden, Charles Edward Stuart defeated

1746

Foundation stone of the castle laid

1746

‘Colonel Jack’, later 5th Duke commands Argyll Militia at Culloden

1747

Carrying of weapons and wearing tartan forbidden

1752

Colin Campbell ‘Red Fox’ of Glenure shot in Appin. Story made famous in Robert Louis Stevenson’s Kidnapped

1760

George III crowned King

1760

4th Duke of Argyll inherits title

1770

5th Duke of Argyll inherits title

1773

James Boswell and Dr Samuel Johnson write about their tour of the Highlands

1775

Linnell designs the furniture in the castle

1780

Robert Mylne designs State Dining Room plasterwork

1783

Glasgow Herald Newspaper first published

1783

5th Duke orders the displays of arms in Armoury Hall still seen today.

1784

State Dining Room painted by Girard and Guinand.

1787

First lighthouse in Scotland opened

1789

Inveraray Castle completed

1794

Sir Duncan Campbell of Lochnell raises Argyleshire Highlanders for the 5th Duke. They later become the Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders

1796

Robert Burns dies

1806

6th Duke inherits title

1820

George IV crowned

1822

George IV’s visit to Scotland arranged by Sir Walter Scott. The King’s decision to wear Highland dress caused much ridicule, but made tartan popular again

1830

William IV crowned

1832

Walter Scott dies

1837

Victoria Crowned

1839

7th Duke inherits title Worked hard to restore the family fortunes and reputation

1846

Edinburgh Waverley station opened

1847

8th Duke inherits title. A successful politician, Cabinet minister and author of scientific and scholarly works, Duke gives Isle of Iona to the Church

1850

Highland clearances

1853

David Livingstone reaches Victoria Falls in Africa
Queen Victoria buys Balmoral Estate

1863

Neil Monro, author of Para Handy, born in Inveraray

1871

Princess Louise, Queen Victoria’s 4th daughter, marries the Marquess of Lorne (will become 9th Duke) Sir Matthew Digby Wyatt designs entrance porch to castle known as Paddington Station

1876

Alexander Graham Bell patents the telephone

1877

Major fire at Inveraray Castle. Architect Anthony Salvin employed to repair and improve damaged building. Conical towers added to the turrets and third floor.

1890

Forth Road Railway Bridge completed

1900

9th Duke inherits title. He became Governor General of Canada. Lake Louise and Alberta both named after Princess Louise

1901

Queen Victoria Dies
Edward VII crowned

1910

George V crowned

1914

1st World War (ends 1918)

1914

10th Duke inherits title. Duke Niall was something of a scholarly recluse and an expert on the history of the clan and family

1924

John Logie Baird sent the World’s first TV picture

1936

Edward VIII succeeds and abdicates (to marry Wallace Simpson)
George VI crowned

1937

2nd World War

1941

First air-raid on Britain targeted Forth Road Bridge. Clydeside hit by Blitz

1941

Inveraray becomes chief training area for the Combined Operations

1949

11th Duke inherits title. A gallant officer taken prisoner with most of the Highland Division in France in 1940, his predilection for cafe society recalled his predecessor the 6th Duke

1952

Queen Elizabeth II succeeds

1953

Queen Elizabeth crowned

1953

Inveraray Castle opened to the public for the first time

1960

Huge supplies of oil and gas found on Scottish shores.

1964

Marriage of Ian, future 12th Duke of Argyll to Iona Colquhoun of Luss

1968

Birth of Torquhil Ian Campbell, the present Duke

1973

12th Duke inherits title

1975

Second major fire at castle. Top story of Castle destroyed.

1997

Scottish Parliament

2001

13th Duke, Torquhil Ian Campbell inherits title

2002

Marriage of 13th Duke to Eleanor Cadbury

2004

Birth of Archie Frederick, Marquess of Lorne

2006

Birth of Lord Rory James Campbell

2008

Birth of Lady Charlotte Campbell